Evaluating Somalia’s Government, Two Years In
May 20, 2024
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Somalia has experienced periodic, largely peaceful presidential elections since its independence in 1960. General elections have been a prominent and consistent feature of the Republic of Somalia’s political history, even if they have taken different forms over time. Somalia has also seen peaceful transfers of power, both prior to independence and during civilian rule (from independence until 1969). The country was an early pioneer of democracy in the Horn of Africa, applying the principle of separation of powers[1] and being the first country on the continent to experience a peaceful transfer of power after independence.[2]

Since the collapse of the central government in 1991, participation in multi-party elections to state and regional administrations has been higher than for elections to transitional government councils or to federal authorities.

The Somali government has made many achievements in the security, economic and political spheres, but despite this, it faces serious challenges both domestically and internationally.

This report gives an overview of the political situation in Somalia and the country’s most important achievements since the last presidential elections in 2022.


Somalia is at critical and dangerous turning point. The past two years have stood out in the country’s tumultuous political history, throughout which it has experienced several distinct political systems. The government has made political and strategic achievements that may form the beginnings of a new path towards the creation of a more stable Somali state, made up of interconnected political components and cohesive, constitutionally mandated federal institutions. This could also mean the end of a political era characterized by a patchwork of solutions imposed from beyond the country’s borders.

If the government succeeds in overcoming its current challenges, and transforming its theoretical achievements into practical realities, this could be the start of the establishment of a fifth republic, turning Somalia from a dilapidated entity into a stable, cohesive, institutional state.

Based on the latest constitutional amendments, Somalia will in due course become a new, fifth republic, with a presidential system of government for the first time in its history, replacing the parliamentary system in place over the past six decades. This represents a common dream among Somalia’s people, and the current government has reaffirmed its firm commitment to working towards this goal.


Report in Arabic here: (Click here)


Dimensions for Strategic Studies (DSS) is a London-based institute dedicated to research and analysis of geopolitical, economic and humanitarian affairs, with a team of experts across the Middle East, North Africa and beyond.


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